Dialects versus situation or adpositional marking in which precisely the diligent and you may motif, but not the fresh recipient, is indexed is actually unattested.
age. another case marker otherwise adposition to your monotransitive patient (and you will ditransitive theme) only with animate and you will/otherwise definite NPs (cf. Bossong 1985, 1998; Comrie 1989: ch. 6). Whenever, as well as commonly the scenario, the new differential target marker is identical to the person marker, i have a prospective disease. Why don’t we glance at Foreign language, that’s better-recognized for the differential target marker a happening for the animate patients (cf. 6a-b). An equivalent preposition along with marks receiver (cf. 6c).
On skin inspection ones advice, it may look that both theme ‘book’ as well as the receiver ‘Juan’ when you look at the (6c) become the fresh monotransitive patient, so as that we may be referring to a double-object build. But not, examination of an increased a number of investigation signifies that having ditransitives this new recipient is obviously designated with an excellent, alone of its animacy, while the motif comes with the same differential establishing given that monotransitive patient. Thus, Foreign-language and comparable languages is actually categorized right here once the indirect-object dialects.
3. New double-object design
In the majority off instances, the 2 things you to definitely act exactly the same and for instance the monotransitive patient let you know no establishing at all, i.age. neither circumstances-ple (7) out of Dagbani (Gur, Niger-Congo; Ghana and you may Togo) is much more typical than just analogy (2) significantly more than.
The fresh new double-target sort of also contains dialects where both the person and you can the motif is actually indexed for the verb, and are usually indexed by an equivalent ple are Kinyarwanda (Bantu; Rwanda; Dryer 1983).
In several twice-target dialects, the receiver and the motif can be famous by-word order, whenever the transaction regarding receiver and you will theme is restricted, it’s generally the recipient which comes first (cf. Sedlak 1975, Primus 1998). Although not, there are even lots of twice-target dialects where not term order differentiates recipient and you can theme, therefore the character project have to be inferred regarding the framework (e.grams. Shipibo-Konibo (Panoan; Peru), Valenzuela 2002).
4. The latest additional-target framework
When you are you will find several languages one to, including Chamorro, reveal special situation-establishing of your ditransitive motif, in most additional-object languages the newest theme’s unique decisions inquiries verb indexing: During these languages there is absolutely no target instance-establishing, and just the newest monotransitive diligent as well as the ditransitive receiver try detailed for the verb. A normal analogy comes from Motuna (East Bougainville; Papua The fresh new Guinea).
5. Mixed languages
A words might have been categorized while the mixed whether or not it shows a couple of just as common alternative constructions to the verb ‘give’, or if it’s got two verbs definition ‘give’ and that take place in different constructions. The former instance is actually represented because of the Mandarin (cf. 9a-b), including by English.
There clearly was you to next form of habits that might be regarded as combined: whenever a property was characterized one another by the situation-establishing and by verb indexing, incase those two do not go with her. For example, for the Bawm (Mouth, Tibeto-Burman; Myanmar and India), the newest individual are noted of the postposition sinah, researching with the unmarked motif, and that’s listed into the verb from the an item clitic and therefore together with indexes new monotransitive diligent (nan= during the (10a-b)).
This has been felt like somewhat randomly to not identify such as dialects while the combined, but in order to categorize her or him with regards to the choices of its circumstances or adpositional establishing. Thus, Bawm is classified once the a secondary-target code for the true purpose of it map.
6. Geographic shipment
The two clear geographical generalizations will be daunting predominance of one’s indirect-target development into the Eurasia (with the exception of mainland Southeast Asia), and lack of that it trend from The united states. Mesoamerica and you can surrounding areas in the South usa also are ruled from the indirect-target languages, however, somewhere else the new activities are more mixed. During the Africa, indeed there is apparently some positioning with vocabulary family: Afroasiatic and you may Mande dialects often tell you the fresh secondary-target design, when you are Niger-Congo dialects aside from Mande tend to reveal double-target and you may secondary-target buildings.